In ancient Egypt black magic was practiced in various forms of witchcraft with mathematical precision. Witches were viewed with reverence and as a necessity rather than a fear. Ordinary citizens facing problems could call upon them to solve the problems.
In pharaonic Egypt, the priest controlled the magic as they were the guardians of the knowledge bestowed upon humans by the gods so that they ward off the negative hands of faith. Among the various levels of priests, the lector priest possessed the greatest magic as they were able to read the ancient magic text and as they were the protection of the ruler and guiding the dead on their path to rebirth.
By the first millennial BC, magic had moved out from the hands of the priests. It fell to the magicians and witches who could control magic to help the people. Midwives and nurses were also considered to have a magic about them to help the sick and women in childbirth.
Magic played a major role in Egyptian society irrespective of the time. The magician’s ability to wield magic was by connecting themselves with a certain god, who would grant them power and would be the focus of their magic.
The Egyptians were fond of spells and amulets each of which had a very distinct purpose. The Book of the Dead had a wide range of different spells which was believed to change the faith of those who sought the help of the priest or magician. But the magician’s power was somewhat limited as to perform a spell on a person the private name f the individual was required, hence most Egyptians had a public name and a private name to protect themselves from bad magic.
Magic in Egypt was not limited to the individual level and believed that they could use them against their enemies as well. The basis of Egyptian witchcraft came from a range of sources, the practitioner of magic has to know alchemy, astrology, astronomy, animal concoctions, and herbal medicines. It was a combination of these with a touch of religion and a relationship with a personal god to make a truly skilled magician. Due to the illiteracy of the population, the most powerful skills were the written ones which would be passed down among families.
The use of the wand was significant as they were intricately decorated and highly-priced and were used to summon magical beings and force the being to obey the magician, priest, or witch that had called for them. Semicircular ivory wands were significant during the 2nd millennial as they were used to draw a protective circle around those who were vulnerable such as women giving birth or ill people.
Amulets were also used for spells, protection, and magic. These Amulets were used for spells and also worn for protection and they were made by the skilled practitioners either male or female. But the magic was not common for anyone to do harmful magic or to do harm, they believed that only foreigners did bad magic. Hence, leaders or the priest never frowned upon individuals performing spells. Egyptians were known to do truly bad magic only against their enemies. The Egyptians’ most vital belief was that magic cannot be used upon the one chosen by God to rule.
Though Egyptians have their own way of believing and doing magic, there came a new order later but they still believed that what they believed in was important even if what now exists is reasonable.