The ultimate question mankind is trying to know is how it all begins? How did it start? How do we come into existence? Because we know if we somehow find the starting point of all the things which we are finding, then maybe we can figure out all the questions unsolved or unsaid. At the beginning of this universe, there are many theories out there and cosmologists are trying their best to give some grains to digest and how this all began. And we all are aware of this famous theory: the Big Bang. It’s quite famous. We can’t ignore that. Maybe out there every person heard this whether in the name of the cosmological theory or because of Sheldon Cooper. But we are aware of it. But as we are growing, technology and science are growing too. What was impossible to do back then is like child play now.
And we thank all the scientists who came before us, who sacrificed their every inch of second to discover this universe’s unsolved concepts. Because of the science, as well as this society, is on the go. So there’s some other theory too which can prove the Big Bang wrong. It is the “Big bounce stimulation”.
You know how the world is expanding according to the Big Bang theory. This expansion is the main reason for the term or another hypothetical concept so far which we believe is “Multiverse”. But the big bounce stimulation put an end to this expansion of the universe. And hey! It’s just another theory and still, it is going understudies and one can’t fix this theory universally but science is all about counter-attacks so science can grow to the ultimate if there’s any. So let’s have a look on this big bounce one.
Big bounce models were endorsed on largely aesthetic grounds by cosmologists including Willem de Sitter, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, George McVittie, and George Gamow.
In most regions of space-time, the rapid expansion would never stop. As a consequence, inflation can’t help but produce a multiverse — a technicolor existence with an infinite variety of pocket universes, one of which we call home. To critics, inflation predicts everything, which means it ultimately predicts nothing. “Inflation doesn’t work as it was intended to work,” said Paul Steinhardt, an architect of inflation who has become one of its most prominent critics.
Which raised the idea of a cyclical universe: one that periodically grows and contracts. They hope to replicate the universe that we see — flat and smooth — without the baggage that comes with a bang, a collapsing universe would change its own structure, and they ultimately discovered that contraction can beat inflation at its own game. No matter how bizarre and twisted the universe looked before it contracted, the collapse would efficiently erase a wide range of primordial wrinkles.
When it comes to visualizing expansion and contraction, people often focus on a balloonlike universe whose change in size is described by a “scale factor.” But a second measure — the Hubble radius, which is the greatest distance we can see — gets short shrift. The equations of general relativity let them evolve independently, and, crucially, you can flatten the universe by changing either.
Picture an ant on a balloon. Inflation is like blowing up a balloon. It puts the onus of smoothing and flattening primarily on the swelling cosmos. In the cyclic universe, however, the smoothing happens during a period of contraction. During this epoch, the balloon deflates modestly, but the real work is done by a drastically shrinking horizon. It’s as if the ant views everything through an increasingly powerful magnifying glass. The distance can see shrinks, and thus its world grows more and more featureless.
Steinhardt and company imagine a universe that expands for perhaps a trillion years, driven by the energy of an omnipresent (and hypothetical) field, whose behavior we currently attribute to dark energy. When this energy field eventually grows sparse, the cosmos starts to gently deflate. Over billions of years, a contracting scale factor brings everything a bit closer, but not all the way down to a point. The dramatic change comes from the Hubble radius, which rushes in and eventually becomes microscopic. The universe’s contraction recharges the energy field, which heats up the cosmos and vaporizes its atoms. A bounce ensues, and the cycle starts anew.
In the bounce model, the microscopic Hubble radius ensures smoothness and flatness. And whereas inflation blows up many initial imperfections into giant plots of multiverse real estate, slow contraction squeezes them essentially out of existence. We are left with a cosmos that has no beginning, no end, no singularity at the Big Bang, and no multiverse.
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